- Ahmadi L (*), Yip A (*), Fowler M, Young SB, Fraser R. (2014). "Environmental feasibility of reuse of electric vehicle batteries", Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 6, 64–74. doi:10.1016/j.seta.2014.01.006
AbstractThe environmental feasibility of re-using electric vehicle (EV) batteries at their automotive end-of-life into stationary applications was analyzed in a parameterized life cycle model. The model assumes that the life of a lithium ion (Li-ion) EV battery is extended to incorporate the re-purposing and re-use in grid storage for a utility application. Compared to using natural gas fuel for peak electrical power generation a 56% reduction in CO2 emissions is possible when an EV battery is re-purposed to store off-peak clean electricity to serve peak demand. The magnitude of CO2 mitigation associated with battery re-use is similar to that of switching from using a conventional vehicle to an electric vehicle, meaning that the greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of vehicle electrification could be doubled by extending the life of EV batteries, and better using off-peak low-cost clean electricity.
Keywords:Electric vehicle (EV); Lithium-ion battery; Battery degradation; Re-purposing; Second use.
Thanks for funding from Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC); Mitsui & Co. (Canada) Ltd.